1.4.1. Environmental Change in the LSJRB
The history of environmental management of water resources in Florida, and the St. Johns River watershed, is a complex, convoluted, but relatively short history. Major milestones in environmental management in Florida have taken place within the last century, with much of the story occurring during our living memory (Table 1.1 and Appendix 1.4.1). The story of water management in Florida unfolds as a tale of natural resource exploitation, lessons learned, and a shift from reigning to restoring, from consuming to conserving.
Noticeable, but small-scale changes occurred in the St. Johns River Basin when the Timucua Indians occupied northeast Florida (Milanich 1998). Yet, it was not until the Colonial Period, particularly during the British occupation in the late 1700s, that the environment experienced large-scale alterations. Such landscape modifications as the conversion of wetlands to agriculture and the clearing of forests for timber surged again in the mid-1800s after Florida was granted statehood (Davis and Arsenault 2005). First tourists, and then developers and agricultural interests, were enticed to the rich and largely unexploited resource that was early Florida (Blake 1980). In northeast Florida, most of the earliest changes to the landscape of the LSJRB were utilitarian in purpose, but the late 1800s and early 1900s were fraught with changes driven by the profitable tourist industry. Tourists were fascinated with promotional accounts describing this land of eternal summer, filled with wild botanicals and beguiling beasts (Miller 1998). The growing village of Jacksonville became the initial portal to Florida, and a thriving tourist industry flourished as steamboats began to shuttle tourists up the St. Johns River. By 1875, Jacksonville was the most important town in Florida (Blake 1980). By the early 1900s, the population of northeast Florida was increasing at a slow, steady rate (see Figure 1.5).
Impacts to the environment mirrored the steady population growth during the early 1900s. Entrepreneurs, investors, and government officials in Florida at this time were thoroughly focused on the drainage and redirection of water through engineering works (Blake 1980). Near Jacksonville, the federal government began decades of projects to dredge and straighten the St. Johns River in order to improve navigation (Monroe and Hong 2018).
The immigration of new settlers was moderate during Florida’s first century as a state because the region still proved inhospitable to the unadventurous. Not only was the region full of irritating, disease-carrying mosquitoes, Florida was just too hot and humid. That changed when air conditioners for residential use became affordable and widespread after WWII (Davis and Arsenault 2005). Florida’s population exploded around the 1950s and has continued to skyrocket ever since (Figure 1.5; USCB 2000).
By the 1960s, a century of topographical tinkering was taking its toll. Ecosystems across Florida were beginning to show signs of stress. Sinkholes emerged in Central Florida (the Upper Basin of the St. Johns River) indicating a serious decline in the water table (SJRWMD 2010a). Flooding, particularly during storm events, was destructive and devastating. Loss of wetlands peaked during this time, as wet areas were rapidly converted to agriculture or urban land uses (Meindl 2005). Major projects, such as the Kissimmee Canal and Cross Florida Barge Canal, continued into the 1960s, but public opposition against such projects was mounting (Purdum 2002).
The St. Johns River and its tributaries near rapidly growing Jacksonville were also badly polluted. A variety of businesses and other activities, including chemical plants, paper mills, houses, shopping malls, and office buildings discharged wastes into local waterways. According to the State Board of Health, McCoy Creek, Hogan Creek, the Ribault River, and the Ortega River, among others, all suffered from horrible pollution. Despite completion of the Buckman Wastewater Treatment Plant in 1961, activities in Jacksonville still contributed about 90 percent of all untreated sewage to the state’s rivers (Crooks 2004).
1.4.2. The Era of Environmental Protections
Yet, the 1960s also marked a period of decisive changes in the history of environmental protection. Such changes also affected the LSJRB. Increasingly, the American public concerned itself with “quality of life” issues, such as air and water pollution, the ability to visit scenic areas, and the dangers posed by pesticides (Merchant 2007). In Florida, growing concerns about the disappearance of ecologically fragile rivers, wetlands, and coastlines galvanized an environmental movement. Groups like the Sierra Club, Audubon Society, and Florida Defenders of the Environment lobbied against the Cross-Florida Barge Canal, Everglades Jetport, and other major projects. In a state characterized by rampant development, there was no shortage of environmental issues in need of attention. From this time forward, policy makers and the public began to think more about the effects of their actions on the environment (White 2010).
This groundswell of support for environmental protection also encouraged the creation of new policies and important environmental laws. During the 1960s, for instance, the U.S. Congress passed the Water Quality Control Act (1965), which gave the federal government authority to establish water quality standards. Subsequent laws included the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), Endangered Species Act (1973), and the Clean Water Act (CWA) (1972 and 1977), legislation which displayed a change in society’s attitudes regarding ecosystems, nature, and the environment (Merchant 2007). In 1970, President Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the reorganization of existing federal agencies and programs. As part of its many responsibilities, the EPA was tasked with setting and enforcing environmental standards for air and water quality (in concert with the states).
At the state level, a devastating drought in 1970-71 contributed to already growing concerns about the use of water. Consequently, attitudes toward water among the public and state officials began to shift from control and consumption to conservation (Purdum 2002; White 2010). In 1972, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Water Resources Act (1972), which created regional water management districts and established a permitting system for allocating water use. The Legislature also passed the Environmental Land and Water Management Act (1972) in order to address areas of critical concern. Other important legislation included the Florida Comprehensive Planning Act (1972) and the Land Conservation Act. These measures, though often challenged in later years, marked important milestones in Florida’s history of environmental protection (Purdum 2002; White 2010).